Paperless Office is a concept, which I am very attracted to; where in every document in the office is in digital format and paper is eliminated or greatly reduced. In general, in the developing countries like India, every office will have lot of paper work involved and especially in Government offices. Today we are in the age of computerisation and rapid communication techniques have been developed in the recent past. We can send the information in digital format to the other side of the globe within seconds. Still, we use lot of paper in our offices. In this article we shall see the benefits and possibilities of paperless office.
Rotation and Revolution of the Earth are well known movements of the Earth which we study from our school days. Apart from these, there is another slow and continuous movement of the earth which is called ‘The precession of rotational axis of the Earth’. Earth revolves round the Sun and rotates around itself on an axis which is inclined about 23.40 away from the perpendicular of its orbital plane. Any movement of celestial body is always influenced by the gravitational force existing on the body because of its neighbouring massive objects in the space. So also, the planet Earth is strongly influenced by the gravity of the Sun and the Moon apart from less influencing gravitational forces by the other planets and debris of our solar system. This gravity of the Sun and Moon is the basic responsible factors for the movement of the Earth. Not only the mass of objects but also their distance and orientation with reference to the Earth also causes variations in gravitational force and there by variations in movements of the Earth. Further, our Earth is not in perfect spherical shape but it is bulged at the equator and flattened at poles due to centrifugal forces from its rotation. Rotation causes a distortion from its spherical shape due to envelope of ocean fluids and we see a bulge in the ocean envelopes around the earth. Sea level at the equator is 21 KM higher than the seal level at poles, the distances measured from the centre of the Earth. The gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon on the gyroscopic Earth bulge produces torque on its rotational axis causing it to drift periodically from East to West completing a turn in 25,800 years. This movement of Earth’s rotational axis is called the Precession.
Water is undoubtedly the essential and basis for life to exist on the planet earth. Water exists abundantly in all three states i.e. solid, liquid and gaseous states on the earth. We human beings are closely associated with water in everyday life. On the average, humans consume 2.5 litres of water each day, although it varies depending on age, gender, climate etc. The percentage of water in human body also varies according to age and gender. The average adult male has about 60 % water and adult woman has about 55% water, because women naturally have more fatty tissue than men and fatty tissue contains less water than lean tissue. The percentage of water in infants is much higher, typically around 75-80 %, dropping to 65 % by one year of age. People feel thirsty when they lose around 2-3 % of their body water. As water in the body is lost, mental performance and physical coordination start to become impaired and no human being can live without water for more than 3-5 days. Now a days, people has got more awareness on the health benefits of drinking pure water. People who are above poverty line are preferring to drink purified water than normal tap water. In this article, I discuss about the water we drink in different forms in our daily routine life to quench our thirst.
It is a common misconception that cell phone usage causes cancer. The cell phone signals are basically electromagnetic signals and mobile phones are low-powered radiofrequency transmitters, operating at frequencies between 450 and 2700 MHz with peak powers in the range of 0.1 to 2 watts. The well-known electromagnetic spectrum is shown below for reference.
The Birth of the Earth
About 4.5 billion years ago, the earth was formed from the left over debris of our solar system collapsing under gravity as a hot molten fire ball. As the collapse of its own mass increased due to gravity, the friction in the pack of its mass produced tremendous heat and pressure in the middle of its crust. Both gravity and intense pressure in the centre of the earth came to equilibrium shaping the new born planet as nearly as a spherical ball. Millions of degrees of surface temperature gradually radiated into the vast cold dark space and the sphere solidified forming uneven surfaces like mountains, valleys and other land structures due to volcanic activity. Due to its mass , the gravity is enough to hold the atmosphere around the planet up to 10,000 KM from its surface. Fortunately , the atmosphere contained basic elements like C, H, O, S, N, P due to eruptions of volcanic activity and out of which the building blocks of life were formed. Its distance from the Sun, 93 million miles, was just right far enough for process of cooling and condensation and yet close enough to prevent the gasses from freezing. After gradual cooling for half a billion years, the steam in the atmosphere condensed, rains fell for thousands of years and water gathered to form beautiful oceans. During this long and gradual cooling, Carbon formed enormous variety of compounds with Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Sulphur which are abundantly found in every life form on this earth. Finally, the conditions on the earth were favourable for the birth of life !
This slide show consists of pictures of famous scientists, mostly Physicists, taken in various moments of their lives.
Background Music Courtesy : Beethoven symphony.
Every science student know what is periodic table. But very few know the details of many elements in it. Ofcourse, no one can remember every detail of each element , but if we have the data , we can use it as a reference when it is needed. Here is the periodic table , I collected from web, and each element is a linked to its detailed page on the web. I felt, it is very helpful, so I am sharing this. Thanks to the original author.
Right click on the below embedded document.
This is Prof. C.V. Raman’s lecture delivered on December 22, 1968 on the Foundation Stone laying ceremony of the Community Science Centre, Ahmadabad.
Right click on the below embedded document.
Why do we laugh? We laugh when someone cracks a joke. But what is it that actually brings laughing when some jokes a lot? Apart from laughing, we smile. If so what is smile?
From the evolutionary biology point of view, laughing and smiling are two completely different reactions to different situations. Smiling is basically used as a tool for communication when we are not intended to have elaborated talking. Smiling is observed in children from 6 weeks of their birth so as to identify the unknown person’s response. Children on seeing any one first put a friendly smile on their tender lips and observe the reply from the other. If the stranger smiles back at him then the child will be in comfortable situation. Children also smile to communicate with their well known to greet or welcome them. Hence smile is evolved on human faces as one of the finest way of communication when speech is not active. We smile when we are expressing positive emotions and the positive emotions are differing from individuals including the associated facial muscular actions in wide variety. As such the actual neurobiological sequence of reactions occurring in the brain for the cause of smile is still unknown. Not only humans but animals also smile or even laugh, exposing their teeth differently in different situations. Even humans also smile at animals when they greet or affectionately tame them. Hence smile is ultimately evolved as a universal facial expression.
What is laughing? Laughter is the involuntary audible reaction to adjust our psyche when an unexpected situation is experienced. But the unexpected situation should be on the lighter vein than painful. For example we laugh when any one slips down before us. But if the man is seriously injured with blood due to slipping then we do not laugh but we will be in hurry to save him. That means laughter is the resultant reaction to adjust our psyche for sudden unusual or surprising harmless actions we witness. Joke is something that puts us in confusion and surprising state momentarily due to incoherence of the jovial situation with preoccupied logic in the brain. Hence our body immediately reacts as laughter to relieve our psyche from the disturbed situation. It is found that laughter improves our mental health and makes us feel comfortable. This is because of the release of endorphins during laughing in our body due to activation of prefrontal cortex and also the involvement of the limbic system (the seat of emotions) in the brain. The laughter can also be caused due to severe disturbance to the psyche and this is generally observed in mad people. Laughter can also be caused due to stimulation of relevant nerve cells in the brain by injecting substances externally, for example, the nitrous oxide, commonly known as the laughing gas. But such methods are found to be deleterious. Besides this, laughter is sometimes contagious. If any one sees a person laughing unusually, it provokes him to laugh. This is because of the same reason. On seeing the unusual laughing of the other person, the person is thrown into the sudden confusion or illogical state and reacts to it by laughter. But if the laughter results in too much non sense, then the observed person may also be annoyed! Apart from this, laughter is known as best medicine and is made to practice regularly in some yoga classes as a part of exercise. Surprisingly, this is not done by cracking jokes, but, the participants are made to laugh voluntarily and loudly. This comforts the movement of facial muscles and dilates the blood vessels facilitating the free flow of blood thus aids in having good health.
Do you know that fire has brought a great change in our living style? In fact I believe that fire turned the whole evolution itself in the most splendid way. Of all the creatures on the earth, man is the only animal which knows how to tame the fire. Human beings learned how to use fire for many things and this brought a great change in their life. Probably he might started using the fire to defend from other animals, as any animal tremendously fears of fire. It was not hard for early humans to get the traces of fire creation in the forests. He observed forests getting fired naturally due to rubbing of special kind of tree branches and fire descending from the sky in the form of shooting stars and thunder bolts. On some fine day he might have tasted naturally burnt flesh piece of an animal and found tastier. He thought of having more delicious food every day by burning the raw meat. This developed the art of cooking in human species. This is his remarkable achievement. It allowed man to gain control and dominate the nature including surrounding animals. The same taming of fire made his food tastier and further easily digestable. This paved way for the evolution of smooth and less weight jaws, teeth and sophisticated muscular movements to tongue and this whole set of changes finally facilitated for proper coordination of movements to the vocal cords. As the action of vocal cords improved due to cooking of food, gradually human species could utter speech and better way of communication rather than limiting to special circumstantial vocal streaming as in other animals. In addition, the usage of fire cannot be easily possible only with front legs and hence animals gradually used front legs more for skilled work and learned how to balance or move only with two remaining hind legs. As the communication and speaking ability is increased along with bipedal locomotion, the homosapiens turned into intelligent creature with developed arts and soon dominated the world. Perhaps this might be the reason why many holy scriptures and rituals in India praise fire and do auspicious events before fire, keeping it as a witness for our progress in the evolution.
Then what is the next step in the evolution in this direction. Well, it is what we are witnessing now. Gradually, the fire is being replaced with electricity! The electricity has become the most essential in our life and is almost impossible to view the human living without it. The electricity has become the inevitable substitution for fire and is steering for the next turn in our evolution. What type of changes it is bringing in our life? First of all, human species are freed from complete dependency on sunlight or fire. Although the sun light is always very much essential, it is not necessary to carry out many works now. Man is busy with his work even in nights because of electricity. Earlier man is not a nocturnal animal but now he is both diurnal and nocturnal. This life style is bringing changes in the body internal mechanism and coordination. In our body, many systems respond collectively and put us in boyish and drowsy conditions based on sun cycle. But we are working irrespective of sun cycle. Apart from this, now a days, even the recreation like playing sports is carried in night times by powerful high consumption flood lights. The dependency on electricity is making us to use natural sun light less efficiently by wasting in sleep and in turn draining the natural resources so as to produce the electricity. So, changes in the environment through the exploitation of the natural resources for production of electricity and simultaneous changes in body chemistry of human species are sufficient for it to evolve into another species in few thousand years from now.